XDL2011 Workshop 5
Materials Science with Coherent Nanobeams at the Edge of Feasibility
Monday, June 27th - Tuesday, June 28th, 2011
Organizers: Christian Riekel (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility), Simon Billinge (Columbia University), Kenneth Evans-Lutterodt (Brookhaven National Laboratory), & Detlef Smilgies (Cornell University) Workshop Agenda (html)
Workshop Poster (pdf)
Purpose: Modern synchrotron radiation sources have demonstrated the scientific potential of combining the full spectrum of x-ray scattering techniques with micrometer and nanometer-size x-ray beams to study complex hierarchical, multi-component or inhomogeneous materials. Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) and Ultimate Storage Ring (USR) microbeams will be quasi-continuous and highly suitable to probe materials both in real and reciprocal space simultaneously, providing access to a much wider range scale than can be achieved with a single method (nanobeams only, scattering only). In particular, these advanced photon sources will be diffraction-limited, which will make it possible to close the gap between scanning and scattering resolution. The envisioned workshop will cover selected areas at the forefront of the technology: Nanobeam preparation
Nanobeam fluorescence imaging and analytics
Nanobeam diffraction - hard materials/ materials science
Nanobeam scattering - soft and biologic materials
Nanobeam coherent imaging Description: Microbeams and nanobeams will be omnipresent in new sources such as energy-recovery linacs (ERL) and ultimate storage rings (USR). The present workshop will focus on frontier areas of the production and application of ultrafine x-ray beams that will open up science in area that can just barely be reached with current sources.
- Nanobeam preparation. New high-brilliance sources such as ERLs and USRs provide beams with very small source points as well as with low divergence. This will allow focusing of a large part of the emitted radiation into the focal spot. Leading optical focusing methods comprise Fresnel zone plates, multilayer Laue lenses, compound and kinoform refractive lenses as well as multilayer KB mirrors.
- Spectroscopic applications of nanobeams comprise fluorescence imaging and tomography as well as nanoXANES. The theoretical detection limit for a 1 nm beam is 1 zeptogram or the mass of a single atom. Applications range from environmental and planetary science to arts and archeology.
- In hard matter science diffraction and standing waves will facilitate probes of strain in very small areas around single crystal defects or in single grains. Amorphous and nanocrystalline structures can be analyzed locally, maybe in combination with coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) methods.
- In the life sciences and soft materials, scattering of low-divergence nanobeams will make information in heterogeneous and hierarchical materials accessible. As beams are close to the diffraction limit, it will be possible to close the resolution gap between scanning and scattering.
- The high coherence of ERL and USR nano- and microbeams will start to blur the distinction of scattering and imaging. Speckles will be expected in many applications. Using state-of-the-art CDI methods, the information in the speckle patterns can be recovered.
- Working with nanobeams will impose stringent conditions on positioning accuracy, temperature stability and vibration insulation of source, optics, and sample stage. New types of sample environments and sample metrology will be necessary to aim nanobeams properly and reduce unwanted background.