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Accelerator Physics for the HERA Luminosity Upgrade

When I moved to DESY in 1998, it had been planned to upgrade the HERA luminosity to 7.5*10^31/(cm^2 s), which was 5 times the original design luminosity. This was to be achieved by decreasing the proton beam size by moving quadrupoles closer to the interaction point and by increasing their strength. Similar measures decrease the electron beam size. However, to match the smaller proton beam size, the horizontal electron emittance additionally has to be decreased. Several aspects of electron and proton beam dynamics had to be considered in order to allow these changes in HERA.

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