Georg Hoffstaetter’s section of "4410/6510: Advanced Physics Laboratory", Spring 2009

Professor:

Georg Hoffstaetter

 

(607)255-5197, 118 Newman Lab, Georg.Hoffstaetter@cornell.edu
(607)254-8981, 381 Wilson Lab, http://georg.hoffstaetter.com

Dates

Literature

Presentations

Labs

Quizzes and Final Exam

Preparation

Grading

Academic Integrity

Dates

Mo

01 / 19 / 09

115 Rockefeller Hall

First laboratory

Tu

01 / 20 / 09

3rd and 4th floor Clark Hall

First lecture

 

03 / 16 – 03 / 20 / 09

Lab is closed during spring break

Spring break

We

04 / 29 / 09

3rd and 4th floor Clark Hall

Last laboratory

Mo

04 / 27 / 09

115 Rockefeller Hall

Last lecture

 

05/07/09 and 05/08/09

Oral, individually arranged

Final exam

 

Any day during the spring semester

Without supervision

Open laboratory

Tu

13:25 - 16:25

3rd and 4th floor Clark Hall

Laboratory

We

13:25 - 16:25

3rd and 4th floor Clark Hall

Laboratory

Mo

14:30 - 15:20

115 Rockefeller Hall

Lecture

 

02/23/09, 03/30/09, 05/06/09

Drop in letter box, 3rd floor Clark Hall

Lab reports due

 

Individually arranged

118 Newman Lab

Office hours, Prof. Hoffstaetter

 

Literature

        How to write a lab report

Presentations

01/19/2009: Introduction and assignment of experiments
01/26/2009: Measurement techniques I
02/02/2009: Measurement techniques II
02/09/2009: Errors, error analysis, statistics
02/16/2009: How to write a lab report
02/23/2009: Research ethics I
03/2/2009: Research ethics II
03/09/2009: Labs: Vacuum and Cryogenics
Advanced topics

Labs

The physics departments advanced laboratory has more than 50 experiments. The list of experiments described online here are those supervised by Georg Hoffstaetter.

Radio frequency transmission line study (advanced, 2.0 points)
[1] Instructions
[2] Two Way Zero Degree Power Splitter/Combiners
[3] Transmission-Line Equations
[4] Standard Level Double-Balanced Mixers
[5] Directional Couplers
[6] Double-Balanced Mixers
[7] Frequency Doublers
[8] Detection of Microwave Power
[9] Resonant-Cavity Characteristics: Measurement of Q
[10] High Power Amplifiers, Broadband
[11] Radiofrequency Circuit Elements
[12] Reference Data for Radio Engineers
[13] Power Splittler/Combiners
[14] Practical Analysis
[15] Photographs of the equipment
[16] Suggestions for improvements (Feel free to add to this file and email to the professor)

Transmission line studies with nanosecond pulse techniques (simple, 1.5 points)
[1] Instructions
[2] Coaxial Cable Conductors
[3] Coaxial Cable Dielectrics
[4] Military RG/U Nomenclature
[5] Polyethylene and Teflon RG Cables
[6] Properties of Dielectrics Used in Coaxial Cables
[7] Pulse Response of Coaxial Cables
[8] Specs of Coaxial Cables Types
[9] Transmission Lines
[10] Photographs of the equipment
[11] Suggestions for improvements (Feel free to add to this file and email to the professor)

Microwave resonant circuits (average, 2.0 points)
[1] Instructions (Feel free to add to this file and email to the professor)
[2] Literature
[3] Photographs of the equipment
[4] Suggestions for improvements (Feel free to add to this file and email to the professor)

Brownian motion (static and kinetic), Avogadro's number and Boltzmann's constant (simple, 1.5 points)
[1] Instructions
[2] Existence of Atoms
[3] Experiment to Measure Boltzmann's Constant
[4] Notes on G10
[5] Photographs of the equipment
[6] Microscope manual
[7] Suggestions for improvements (Feel free to add to this file and email to the professor)

Mu-meson lifetime (2 setups) (average, 2.0 points) 0 points)
[1] Instructions
[2] Notes on Data Analysis
[3] Accelerator Schematic
[4] Accelerator Schematic .eps File
[5] Specs on Counters
[6] Detection of Cosmic Rays
[7] Specs on Differential Comparators
[8] Theory of Electromagnetic Interactions
[9] Variation of the Ratio of Positive to Negative Mu Mesons
[10] Specs on Multivibrators
[11] Total Nuclear Capture Rates for Negative Muons
[12] Photographs of the equipment
[13] Suggestions for improvements (Feel free to add to this file and email to the professor)

Michelson interferometer (3 setups) (simple, 1.5 points)
[1] Instructions
[2] Procedure for Finding White Light Fringes
[3] Interference of Two Beams of Light
[4] Interference Spectroscopes
[5] Use of Grating to Find Interferometer White Light Fringes
[6] Photographs of the equipment
[7] Suggestions for improvements (Feel free to add to this file and email to the professor)

Diffraction: Fraunhofer, Fresnel, Fourier image formation (simple, 2.0 points)
[1] Instructions
[2] Detailed Instructions
[3] Notes on Theory
[2] Elements of the Theory of Diffraction
[5] Diffraction from Feynman
[6] Introduction to Modern Optics
[7] Distinction between Fraunhofer and Fresnel Diffraction
[8] The Microscope
[9] Photographs of the equipment
[10] Suggestions for improvements (Feel free to add to this file and email to the professor)

Polarization phenomena: electro- and magneto-optics (simple, 2.0 points)
[1] Instructions
[2] Wavelength and Temperature Dependence of the Faraday Effect
[3] Magnetic and Electric Fields
[4] New Aspects of Giant Exciton Faraday Rotation
[5] Laws of Radiation
[6] Faraday-rotation Spectra of Semimagnetic Semiconductors
[7] Photographs of the equipment
[8] Suggestions for improvements (Feel free to add to this file and email to the professor)

Vibrational structure in the spectrum of molecular N2 (average, 2.0 points)
[1] Instructions
[2] Concave Gratings. Methods of Mounting
[3] An Introduction to Molecular Spectra
[4] The General Features of an Electronic-Banded Molecular Spectrum
[5] Photographs of the equipment
[6] Suggestions for improvements (Feel free to add to this file and email to the professor)

Optical pumping in Rb (2 setups) (advanced, 2.0 points)
[1] Instructions
[2] S-10 Special Notes
[3] Alkalai Spectra
[4] Optical Pumping Theory and Experiments
[5] Magnetic Moments and Angular Momentum
[6] Multiplet Structure of Line Spectra and Electron Spin
[7] Optical Pumping
[8] Introduction to Modern Optics
[9] Physical Interpretation of Quantum Numbers and the Zeeman Effect
[10] Use of Rotating Coordinates in Magnetic Resonance Problems
[11] Optical Pumping
[12] Photographs of the equipment
[13] Suggestions for improvements (Feel free to add to this file and email to the professor)

p-n junction: photo effect, Zener and tunnel diodes, e/k (2 setups) (advanced, 1.5 points)
[1] Instructions
[2] Literature
[3] Photographs of the equipment
[4] Suggestions for improvements (Feel free to add to this file and email to the professor)

SS-14 Optical transmission of thin films (average, 2.0)
[1] Instructions
[2] Literature
[3] A Simple Method for the Determination of Optical Constants and the Thickness of a Thin Film
[4] Photographs of the equipment
[5] Suggestions for improvements (Feel free to add to this file and email to the professor)

Z1 Charged particle beams (average, 2.0)
[1] Accelerator Instruction Manual
[2] Procedure
[3] SIMION Instructions
[4] Ion Extraction
[5] The Optical Properties of Electrostatic Lenses
[6] Lenses Formed from Three Diaphragms
[7] The Individual Parts of a Mass Spectrometer
[8] Electrostatic Lenses
[9] Appendix
[10] Manual for starting up the ion source
[11] Photographs of the equipment
[12] Suggestions for improvements (Feel free to add to this file and email to the professor)

These are instructions to labs not currently supervised by Georg Hoffstaetter.

Acoustics and Aeronautics
[AR-4] Instructions

Circuits
[C-1] Instructions
[C-7] Instructions
[C-8] Instructions
[C-10] Instructions
[C-13] Instructions

Physical Electronics
[E-4] Instructions
[E-5] Instructions
[E-10] Instructions
[E-15] Instructions

General
[G-7] Instructions
[G-7a] Instructions
[G-7b] Instructions
[G-8] Instructions

Heat
[H-4] Instructions
[H-5] Instructions

Nuclear
[N-0] Instructions
[N-1] Instructions
[N-2] Instructions
[N-4] Instructions
[N-12] Instructions
[N-16] Instructions
[N-17] Instructions

Optics
[O-4] Instructions
[O-14] Instructions

Spectroscopy
[S-2] Instructions
[S-4] Instructions
[S-6] Instructions
[S-7] Instructions
[S-9] Instructions

Solid State
[SS-6] Instructions
[SS-9] Instructions
[SS-10] Instructions
[SS-11] Instructions
[SS-13] Instructions

X-rays
[X-1] Instructions
[X-3] Instructions
[X-6] Instructions
[X-7] Instructions
[X-8] Instructions

Lab report

The structure of your lab report should follow these guidelines:

   1. Title
   2. Author
   3.
Abstract
         1.
Describing the goal of the experiment
         2. The method used for achieving it
         3. A short summary of the results
         4.
A list of especially interesting findings
   4.
Introduction
         1.
Describing the background of the topic being investigated. Why is the goal of the experiment of interest?
         2. How have similar measurements been done in the past, why is it done again here?
         3. Include general theory, meaning theory that does not only apply to your experiment. For experiment 1, for example, the introduction should mention Snell's law.
   5. Theory
         1. Review of the theory that is used in the experiment. Here you should use some judgment on whether a theory is very general and should be in the introduction, or whether it is more special to the experiment, and should therefore be in this section. The theory of Fresnel's equations is general and should be in the introduction. Brewster's angle is a corollary of that theory and could therefore also be in the introduction. However, you could also take the view that it is the specific corollary that you use for experiment 2, and you could therefore put it into this theory section.
         2. Derivation of general formulas that will be used. For experiment 1C, for example, this would include the derivation of how n is related to the minimum angle of refraction. For experiment 2, for example, the last equation in the manual with tan over sin to get the difference between the phase advances in the overhead transparency should be derived here. But as I said in class, it might be a challenge to derive it without help, so you do not have to include a derivation. For this time, just reference the lab manual. But describe well which angles have to be used in for this formula.
   6. Experimental setup and results
         1. Graph of setup. For experiment 1C, for example, you could describe how the prism is mounted and how you measured the minimum angle.
         2. Quantities measured'
         3. Sources of errors
         4.
Data and their errors in graphs
         5.
Data evaluation leading to the measurement result and its error estimate
         6.
Error analysis. Complex formulas for the error analysis should be in an appendix
   7. Conclusion
         1.
Summary of results
         2.
List of especially interesting findings
         3. Suggestion of improvements or how to continue the work
   8.
Acknowledgments

Example paper

Wheeler's Rules of Writing

Quizzes and Final Exam

The advanced laboratory has no quizzes, but an oral final exam. Three experiments have to be performed and documented in 10 page, double-spaced reports.

Preparation

Prerequisite physics courses at Cornell: Physics 2214 (or 3310 or 2360) plus Physics 3318 and 3327, or permission of instructor

List of math courses at Cornell.
Mathematical topics that will be useful for this laboratory: Complex functions, Taylor Series, Vectors, Fourier Series, Linear algebra.

Grading

The laboratory reports are due before on the above specified days. They, together with laboratory performance, skill, etiquette and lecture participation, account for 85% of the grade. The grade of unexcused late reports will be reduced by 10% per day. The final exam is worth 15% and will cover the basics of the labs you performed and lecture material. Each laboratory report will be graded according to the following scheme: Each experiment will be separated into 5 sub-experiments, and for each sub-experiment 4 points can be obtained for "Theory", "Experimental Description", “Data Taking", and "Evaluation." In addition 10 points each can be obtained for "Performance in the lab" and for "Quality of the Report." This sums up to 100 points per report.

Academic integrity

Academic Integrity is mandatory.

Basic principle: Do not pretend that the work or ideas of others are your own.
1) You may discuss the experiments with others.
2) You have to credit documents or people if you have used their ideas.
3) You may not copy equations, derivations, or text from other laboratory reports.

Send comments to G. H. Hoffstaetter

Last Update: 02-12-2009